Monday, December 30, 2013

Where does GENDER fit in anthropology?

Anthropologically gender is an important variable because of its biological origin, that is as a technical term, gender denotes one's sexual function as a member of the species. From the evolutionary perspective it is significant in terms of the biological mechanism that produces adaptations over time, and today in terms of the medical consequences for the individual person as a biological organism.

Socially, these distinctions are and have been critical to the formation of human reproductive unit (the family) and the process of raising of an immature offspring to a sexually mature member of the group. It also is important in the way society, the group, responds to individuals born physically "different" from the local gender norm, or the behaviors that differ from those norm. How a society adapts to these situations are certainly anthropological questions.

Culturally, as many point out, gender is simply assumed by the members of a culture. They simple conform to the norms symbolism of dress, styles, occupations, etc. The anthropological questions that relate to these gender differences arise from the comparison between cultures and sub-cultures. Also the anthropologist is interested in the definitions and responses to deviance from these expected differences.

While cultures and societies may address the gender issues differently, the biological significance of gender to the species has, until the end of the last century, been a critical element in the definition of the human animal. Today, with fertility and transgender medical technology, the biological imperative for gender is coming under question and the human, social, and cultural responses are definitely a subject for anthropological study.

Finally, the role of technology and gender raises another set of questions where technology cancels out the physical advantages that once were associated with the biological advantages one gender held over the other. Again, these are anthropological questions about the biological nature of gender worthy of study.

Saturday, December 14, 2013

Professional Ethics or Gamesmanship?

What are some of the beat examples of ethical codes? I think of the Ten Commandments in the Bible or Jesus' "Love the Lord God Almighty with all your heart and your neighbor as yourself" These are short, simple, statements which serve as personal guidelines for one's actions.

 For anthropology the initial concern about professional ethics was two fold. First was to insure that the field ethnographer would have access to their subjects by requiring him/her to behave in a manner that would not prejudice the situation for the next field worker. The second concern was to uphold the scientific integrity of the research product produced from the field work, i.e. be honest and objective in your analysis and share it with colleagues. Two very simple principles.

Religions and philosophies take these statements and then build complex fishnets out of them. So full of  knots to trap you and so many loop holes to allow you to wiggle through, the ethical code becomes a game instead of guide. It becomes a legalistic pastime for those with nothing better to do but to write more specific interpretation of the principle to trap and more subtle distinctions to escape the intent. Anthropological codes put forward over the past 50 years have tended to follow the same course.

As I have seen it, the profession has fail to come to grips with three major problems anthropology faces to achieve these simple goals by writing a code of ethics.

First is a failure to understand the difference between the sub-disciplines and what this means in terms of the ethical challenges one faces. Academic cultural anthropologist assume that cultural academic anthropology is Anthropology and demand an ethical code that represents that point of view. Its rules become too complex and specific for themselves and irrelevant for others such as the applied, administrative, policy or clinical roles or for those who work primarily with material culture, linguistic, or biological subjects or materials.

Second is the failure to distinguish the individual's position in life as a whole person and his/her "professional" role as an "anthropologist." As anthropologist, the individual is representing the tribe of anthropologists. As an individual, he/she is representing themself. As a result of this lack of distinction, codes have been proposed seeking to control the whole range of personal activity under the umbrella of anthropological ethics. Anthropology is a "profession" not a religion.

Third, a professional code and a personal code are very different. A professional code is a door or gate through which the profession (tribe) admits and judges members. It requires an individual to accept the tenets as a condition of acceptance into and by the profession. AND once admitted, it requires the members to adhere to the principles under penalty of ostracism and loss of professional privilege and status if the ethics are breached. Neither major anthropological association, AAA or SfAA, requires acceptance nor imposes punishment of what is called their principles, thus they have unenforceable codes. Such unenforceable codes actually defeat the original purpose for such codes.

In the past fifty years that I have participated, thought about, and written about ethics in anthropology I have yet to see a draft, much less an approved version, of the AAA Code or the SfAA code that addresses the issues outline above in a way that one could actually point to as an ANTHROPOLOGICAL ETHICS CODE.

In the age of Twitter, an ethical principle < 140 characters + (Specific = to define + general = to be understood by all ) might be the best example of what an code of ethics for anthropologist should be.

Tuesday, December 10, 2013

"Anthropological Entrepreneurship," A Career Strategy

Many anthropologists, academic and applied, have become addicted to the federal government to fund their research or jobs. For those considering as career in program evaluation and/or the non-profit sector, federal funding has become a crutch.

It is time to realize that the world is bigger than that. In addition to federally funded programs there  are the private, state and local government supported programs. There are also opportunities in the private sector, but that is a different story.

In today's funding climate, the federal government is not the most secure source and the successful non-profits are forced to compete by improving their performance and finding alternative funding sources. Program evaluations are needed to justify continued funding, to sell grant applications to new or other sources, and internally, to develop new and more efficient management systems as well as new funding and business models in order to survive..

A recurring complaint or question that I hear from anthropologists who want to transition into the real world, is: "They won't consider me because I don't have the experience;" or, "How do I get the experience I need?"

I  recommend a strategy that I call "Anthropological Entrepreneurship". What you can do is create a job for yourself. And in the process, you are creating your professional personality and a self identity as a product that you can sell. That is, you take control of your career by becoming your own product.

The first step is to think like an entrepreneur, not like a day laborer or corporate drone or academic bureaucrat. To think like an entrepreneur, you have to take control of your life. This begins by defining your product as a solution to someone else's problem and your market as the someone else who has the problem you can solve.

Next, you have to be willing to take a risk and trust in yourself by investing your own resources (time, money and talent) to get started.

Third and most important, you have to be willing to fail and learn from your failures but not surrender to them. If you can do these then you are ready to venture out into the real world and get some practical experience.

 A good place to start looking is locally and at the small non-profits that have limited professional staff. These agencies are always in need of a skilled social science or business planner to help them develop their evaluation plan and/or to do their evaluation work. They are also generally unable to buy or pay for such services. The advantage here is that you can test yourself as a product. Failure here is not a bad as failing in a bigger and better know job/assignment. At the same time, the agency gains from your free service and whatever benefits or value your efforts contribute to organization. Remember your failure is not necessarily theirs nor is their failure necessarily yours.

Non-profits depend heavily on volunteers and generally have "working" boards of directors rather than "policy" boards. They are therefore often hard put to find board members to replace or fill vacancies that occur when volunteers are burned out. Boards are made up of local leaders and activists. This is great place for you to start building a profession network outside of academic anthropology and to prove yourself to potential clients. In some cases, this can lead to a paying job or a project contract.

Finally, the difference between an applied anthropologist and a career anthropologist is that the applied anthropologist expects clients to come to him/her, while a career anthropologist goes out and shows potential clients why they need his or her services and why they should pay for them.

Thursday, November 7, 2013

Applied Anthropology - The Second Branch (2)

This is the second part of a discussion about Applied Anthropology as the second branch of anthropology and how to apply it to Business. Here we look at how to establish your identity in the Business culture. Don't be surprised if you see some similarities with successful "marketing"  yourself within the academic community. The secret to success begins by learning  to speak the language vocally and behaviorally. How do you do that?

Total Immersion

Become a participant- observer. Go to networking events in your community and join social or professional groups, such as Toastmasters, the Chamber of Commerce, Professional organizations in the area of your interest, Civic organizations such as the Rotary Club, Kiwanis Club, Masons, Knights of Columbus, and/or volunteer or join a non-profit organization that serves an interest that you have.

My own experience has been that one can succeed as an applied anthropologist by making personal the contacts through such groups. This is where you learn and practice the language and dialects of the business world. Here you learn about job and business opportunities that don't appear in the local want ads, or even the national ads. Most jobs, whether projects or employment opportunities, are not advertised, nor posted with the State Employment Office or posted on the Internet. Most jobs opportunities are found through connections, personal connection. As an applied anthropologist you have to learn who the right connections are. To do so, use your skills and knowledge about social networks and social organization to find out.

How to Network

To start - Don't sell Anthropology, sell yourself!

One of the biggest mistakes I see all the time at networking events can be found among the young and/or newbie participants in the group or at the event. You can spot them easily. They are the ones who either stand back and just eat and drink the goodies while looking out of place. Or they are the ones who are quick to introduce themselves and then immediately begin their sales pitch. These are the ones who after a couple of visits are most likely not to return . Why?

The former, the wall flowers, never engage in the event. Instead they just attend the event and expect people to come to them. They are like the kid who goes to a dance but is afraid to ask anyone to dance. They pay their admission fee, eat, drink, and maybe socialize with the other wallflowers. Later they wonder why nothing changed, forgetting that they did very little to make it change.

The latter, the hustlers, overly "engages." They come on too strong - to the point of turning off any contacts they try to make. Like pitchmen, after a brief introduction, they go immediately for the sale . For them, this event is just another opportunity to get their product or service in front of a large audience. They are playing the law of large numbers. Meet enough people and you will make a sale.They are not really interested in contacts as people.

The Social Networker

The smart networker is the one who starts by knowing that these events are NOT  selling situations. Selling is done elsewhere. These are social situations where you can meet and get to be know and be known by other people. This is where they get to know you as a person. Your goal is to participate, observe and listen in order to qualify and be qualified for opportunities as they arise.  This is your opportunity to show others your personality and to learn from them what they might need. This is the first step in personal sales, known in business as "qualifying the customer".

Joining social networks and qualifying the individuals who fit your needs in the group is the first step in building rapport. The second step is allowing the members of the group to qualified you.

You know this term, "rapport." You have heard it in your anthropology classes. This is the same process you would use to enter a strange village where you want to study. Once you have identified yourself and established yourself, you are ready to identify who in the group might be aware of potential opportunities of interest to you. Cultivate those relationships. Learn their social network and what role they play in these networks. Malcolm Gladwell has described these roles as the Connector, Maven, and Salesman in his book The Tipping Point.

Who are they?

You want to identify who plays these rols are and how they can be of assistance to you.

The Connector has a sociable personalities who brings people together. He or she knows who you need to talk to or meet and can arrange a meeting. The Maven is well informed and likes to pass along his/her knowledge to others. He/she is a fountain of information about all sorts of things and is happy to share. The Salesmen is, as the name implies, adept at persuading the unenlightened. The Salesman is the one you turn to to sell the idea and to help you close the deal.

It will help you, as well, to define your role in the network. Depending upon the role you chose or is assigned to you, you can approach others and ask for their assistance and recruit them to help you with your need.

These are NOT the skills that one learns in graduate anthropology classes, yet they are the skills that anyone who hopes to succeed in business must assimilate. This is why I call Applied Anthropology the second branch of anthropology. The role of the applied anthropologist is to help clients in the business community to identify and solve business problems from an anthropological perspective.

Networking is the process that an applied anthropologist uses to help make things happen and understanding why they happen.

Friday, July 26, 2013

Applied Anthropology - The Second Branch

A recent comment appearing in The Anthropological Network stated the following about the role of applied anthropology and business. "In particular, it seem to me that anthropology hasn't been very successful at 'marketing' its method to industries and businesses (with some exceptions, of course). The author of the comment then asked  

"Would you agree?" 

The fact that the author was looking for an explanation of this state of affairs speaks volumes about the realities of the anthropological profession and how it approaches its role in society and to society. The traditional third world, non-literate, socially isolated, tribes and bands that spawned the development of cultural anthropology and ethnography, are today very rare and for all practical purposes no longer isolated. Instead we find ourselves today entering fields well populated by the multitude of social and behavioral sciences that arose during the 20th century. As a late comer, the professional institutions established to recruit, train and support anthropologists have been faced with a crisis of identity.  Is anthropology simply an academic discipline or does it have a distinct application to the real world?

The Institutional Structure:


I would say the problem is to be found in the formal professional institutions controlled by Academic anthropology -- professors, departments, and the "professional" associations. These institutions do not understand the business world or its language. Even more than the lack of understanding is a narcissistic moral "contempt" directed toward business and government organizations displayed by academic anthropology.

For those of us, and there are thousands of us, who have found a home in these non-academic institutions based on our anthropological perspective and training -- we have long ago accepted that fact that our academic colleagues look down on the work we do. We know that we are often judged by their applying academic standards that have no significant meaning nor add value to our work. 

Fifth sub-discipline or Second Branch:


 Applied anthropology is not academic anthropology. That is, it is not the 5th sub-field. It is the second branch of anthropology. It is client focused, service orient, and problem solving. It uses the anthropological perspective but is not constrained by academic orthodoxy, fadism or current fashion. Instead, it is pragmatic, realistic, specific and ethically relativistic. Most of all the applied business anthropologist lives in the world and culture of business and a business institution. The applied anthropologist can have many different status names and play many different roles. In this environment, these names are determined by the local organizational chart. Rarely is the name "anthropologist."

The academic lives in the world of the university, college, research institute or the museum, also known as the ivory tower. Here anthropologist have a few, well defined statuses and roles they can occupy based on the academic social structure. One of these status/roles is based on the discipline one was trained in and hire for within the institution. Most often this is as an "anthropologist."

Preparing for a Career in the Business world: 

There are similarities between academic and applied anthropology. Applying anthropology to the business world begins with the basic steps that one would take to do an ethnographic study of a tribe in some far off location.

1. Learn the language
2. Read up on the history and context in which the tribe exists. Since businesses are literate institutions, read the basic business literature (such as a text book or popular "how to" or history book on the business subject area you are interested in studying
3. Read what applied anthropologists have written about business cases that are related to your area of interest from the anthropological perspective.
4. Study the business media to keep up to date with the social, political, and economic forces affecting your particular business interest, subject, or institution.
5. Find a problem that THE BUSINESS wants to solve and apply an anthropological perspective to solve that problem for them (not just the reviewers for the American Anthropologists) 

Monday, February 11, 2013

The List that the AAA did not make

I recently posted the link to this page to LinkedIn AAA forum from the NRA website only to discover that they had pulled the page after some bad publicity. So here is the page as it appeared before being pulled.

National Organizations With Anti-Gun Policies
Posted on September 17, 2012

The following organizations have lent monetary, grassroots or some other type of direct support to anti-gun organizations. In many instances, these organizations lent their name in support of specific campaigns to pass anti-gun legislation such as the March 1995 HCI "Campaign to Protect Sane Gun Laws." Many of these organizations were listed as "Campaign Partners," for having pledged to fight any efforts to repeal the Brady Act and the Clinton "assault weapons" ban.

All have officially endorsed anti-gun positions.

Ambulatory Pediatric Association
American Academy of Pediatrics
American Civil Liberties Union
American Academy of Ambulatory Care Nursing
American Medical Women`s Association
American Medical Student Association
American Medical Association
American Association for the Surgery of Trauma
American Trauma Society
American Federation of Teachers
American Association of School Administrators
American Alliance for Rights and Responsibilities
American Medical Association
American Bar Association
American Counseling Association
American Academy of Child & Adolescent Psychiatry
American Academy of Pediatrics
American Association for World Health
American Ethical Union
American Nurses Association
American Association of Neurological Surgeons
American Association of Family and Consumer Sciences
American Firearms Association
American Academy of Child and Adolescent Psychiatry
American Jewish Committee
American Trauma Society
American Psychological Association
American Jewish Congress
American Public Health Association
Americans for Democratic Action
Anti-Defamation League

Black Mental Health Alliance
B`nai B`rith

Central Conference of American Rabbis
Children`s Defense Fund
Church of the Brethren
Coalition for Peace Action
Coalition to Stop Gun Violence
College Democrats of America
Committee for the Study of Handgun Misuse & World Peace
Common Cause
Congress of National Black Churches, Inc.
Congress of Neurological Surgeons
Consumer Federation of America
Council of the Great City Schools
Council of Chief State School Officers

Dehere Foundation
Disarm Educational Fund

Environmental Action Foundation
Episcopal Church-Washington Office

Florence and John Shumann Foundation
Friends Committee on National Legislation

General Federation of Women`s Clubs
George Gund Fun
Gray Panthers

H.M. Strong Foundation
Harris Foundation
Hechinger Foundation

Interfaith Neighbors
Int`l Ladies` Garment Workers` Union
Int`l Association of Educators for World Peace

Jewish Labor Committee
Joyce Foundation

Lauder Foundation
Lawrence Foundation
League of Women Voters of the United States*
Lutheran Office for Governmental Affairs, Evangelical Lutheran Church in America

Manhattan Project II
Mennonite Central Committee-Washington Office

National Safe Kids Campaign
National Association of Police Organizations
National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
National Black Nurses` Association
National Association of Chain Drug Stores
National Network for Youth
National Assembly of National Voluntary Health & Social Welfare Organizations
National Association for the Advancement of Colored People
National Association of School Psychologists
National Association of Counties*
National Association of Pediatric Nurse Associates & Practitioners
National Association of School Safety and Law Enforcement Officers
National Education Association
National Association of Elementary School Principals*
National Association of Public Hospitals
National Coalition Against Domestic Violence
National Association of Secondary School Principals
National Association of Social Workers
National Association of Children`s Hospitals and Related Institutions
National Association of School Psychologists
National Council of La Raza
National Center to Rehabilitate Violent Youth
National Commission for Economic Conversion & Disarmament
National Council of the Churches of Christ in the USA
National Council of Negro Women
National Association of Community Health Centers
National People`s Action
National Education Association*
National League of Cities
National Council on Family Relations
National Council of Jewish Women
National Organization for Women
National Political Congress of Black Women
National Parks and Conservation Association
National Peace Foundation
National Urban League, Inc.
National Parent, Teachers Association*
National Urban Coalition
National SAFE KIDS Campaign
National Organization on Disability
National Spinal Cord Injury Association
NETWORK: A National Catholic Social Justice Lobby

Ortenberg Foundation

Peace Action
People for the American Way
Physicians for Social Responsibility
Police Foundation
Project on Demilitarization and Democracy
Public Citizen

Society of Critical Care Medicine
Southern Christian Leadership Conference

The Council of the Great City Schools
The Synergetic Society
20/20 Vision

U.S. Catholic Conference, Dept. of Social Development
Union of American Hebrew Congregations
Unitarian Universalist Association
United States Catholic Conference
United Methodist Church, General Board & Church Society
United Church of Christ, Office for Church in Society*
United States Conference of Mayors

War and Peace Foundation
Women Strike for Peace
Women`s National Democratic Club
Women`s Action for New Directions (WAND)
Women`s Int`l League for Peace and Freedom
World Spiritual Assembly, Inc.
YWCA of the U.S.A.
*The national organization only endorses federal legislation.

Anti-Gun Individuals & Celebrities
The following celebrities and national figures have lent their name and notoriety to anti-gun causes, speaking out for anti-gun legislation and providing a voice for anti-gun organizations.
Krista Allen - Actress
Suzy Amis - Actress
Louis Anderson - Comedian
Richard Dean Anderson - Actor
Maya Angelou - Poet
David Arquette - Actor
Ed Asner - Actor
Alec Baldwin - Actor
Bob Barker - TV Personality
Carol Bayer Sager - Composer
Drew Barrymore - Actress
Kevin Bacon - Actor
Lauren Bacall - Actress*
Sarah Ban Breathnach - Writer
William Baldwin - Actor
Candice Bergen - Actress
Richard Belzer - Actor
Tony Bennett - Singer
Boys II Men - Pop Group
Jon Bon Jovi - Singer
Peter Bogdonovich - Director
Peter Bonerz - Actor
Albert Brooks - Actor
Beau Bridges - Actor
Benjamin Bratt - Actor
Bonnie Bruckheimer - Movie Producer
Christie Brinkley - Model
Dr. Joyce Brothers - Psychologist/Author
James Brolin - Actor
James Brooks - TV Producer
Mel Brooks - Actor/Director
Betty Buckley - Actress
Ellen Burstyn - Actress
Steve Buscemi - Actor
David Canary - Actor
Kate Capshaw - Actress
Kim Cattrall- Actress
Josh Charles - Actor
Robert Chartloff - Producer
Stockard Channing - Actress
Jill Clayburgh - Actress
Terri Clark - Singer
George Clooney - Actor
Jennifer Connelly - Actress
Judy Collins - Singer
Kevin Costner - Actor
Sean Connery - Actor
Sheryl Crow - Singer
Billy Crystal- Actor
Julie Cypher - Director
Arlene Dahl - Actress
Clive Davis - Writer
Linda Dano - Actress
Matt Damon - Actor
Pam Dawber - Actress
Patrika Darbo - Actress
Stuart Damon - Actor
Ellen Degeneres - Actress
Gavin de Becker - Writer
Rebecca DeMornay - Actress
Danny DeVito - Actor
Michael Douglas - Actor
Phil Donahue - Talk Show Host
Richard Donner - Director
Fran Drescher - Actress
Richard Dreyfus - Actor
David Duchovny - Actor
Sandy Duncan - Actress
Christine Ebersole - Actress
Kenneth "Babyface" Edmonds - Singer
Missy Elliott - Singer
Nora Ephron - Director
Gloria Estefan - Singer
Melissa Etheridge - Singer
Mia Farrow - Actress
Mike Farrell - Actor
Carrie Fisher - Actress
Sally Field - Actress
Doug Flutie - NFL player
Fannie Flagg - Actress
Jane Fonda - Actress
Jodie Foster - Actress
Rick Fox - NBA Player
Andy Garcia - Actor
Art Garfunkel - Singer
Geraldo - TV personality
Richard Gere - Actor
Kathie Lee Gifford - TV personality
Paul Glaser - TV director
Brad Gooch - Writer
Elliott Gould - Actor
Louis Gossett, Jr. - Actor
Michael Gross - Actor
Nancy Lee Grahn - Actress
Bryant Gumbel - TV Personality
Deidra Hall - Actress
Ethan Hawke - Actor
Mariette Hartley - Actress
Mark Harmon - Actor
Anne Heche - Actress
Howard Hesseman - Actor
Marilu Henner - Actress
Dustin Hoffman - Actor
Hal Holbrook - Actor*
Helen Hunt - Actress
John Ingle - Actor
Francesca James - TV Producer
Norman Jewison - Director
Lainie Kazan - Actress
Richard Karn - Actor
Jeffrey Katzenberg - Producer
Barry Kemp - TV Producer
David E. Kelley - TV Producer
Diane Keaton - Actress
Margaret Kemp - Interior Designer
Chaka Khan - Singer
Kevin Kline - Actor
Michael E. Knight - Actor
Jonathan Kozol - Writer
Lenny Kravits - Singer
Lisa Kudrow - Actress
Wally Kurth - Actor
Christine Lahti - Actress
k.d. lang - Singer
Ricki Lake - TV personality
Denis Leary - Actor
John Leguizamo - Actor
Norman Lear - TV Producer
Spike Lee - Director
Hal Linden - Actor
Tara Lipinski - Former Olympian
Keyshawn Johnson - NFL player
Rob Lowe - Actor
Amanda Marshall - Singer
Barry Manilow - Singer
Camryn Manheim - Actress
Howie Mandel - Actor
Kyle MacLachlan - Actor
Madonna - Singer
Marla Maples - Actress
Marsha Mason - Actress*
Mase - Singer
Penny Marshall - Director
Prema Mathai-Davis - YWCA Official
John McDaniel - Musician
John McEnroe - Athlete
Brian McKnight - Musician
Natalie Merchant - Singer
Bette Midler - Singer
Mary Tyler Moore - Actress
Michael Moore - Film Maker
Mike Myers - Actor
N Sync - Music group
Kathy Najimy - Actress
Jack Nicholson - Actor
Leonard Nimoy - Actor
Mike Nichols - Director
Stephen Nichols - Actor
Rosie O`Donnel l- Actress/Talk Show Host
Jennifer O Neill - Actress
Julia Ormond - Actress
Jane Pauley - TV Personality
Sarah Jessica Parker - Actress
Mandy Patinkin - Actor
Richard North Patterson - Writer
Rhea Perlman- Actress
Michelle Pfieffer - Actress
Aidan Quinn - Actor
Colin Quinn - Actor
Dennis Quaid - Actor
Elizabeth Bracco Quinn - Actress
Bonnie Raitt - Singer
Debbie Reynolds - Actress
Mary Lou Retton - Former Olympian
Paul Reiser - Actor
Peter Reckell - Actor
Rob Reiner - Actor/Director
Robert Redford - Actor/Director
Anne Rice - Writer
Cathy Rigby - Actress
Julia Roberts - Actress
Marc Rosen - TV Producer
Tim Robbins - Actor
Tim Roth - Actor
Renee Russo - Actress
Robin Ruzan - Wife of Mike Myers
Meg Ryan - Actress
Susan Sarandon - Actress
Jerry Seinfeld - Actor
Kyra Sedgwick - Actress
Martin Sheen - Actor
Russell Simmons - Record Producer
Neil Simon - Playwright*
Louise Sorel - Actress
Mira Sorvino - Actress
Rena Sofer - Actress
Britney Spears - Singer
Bruce Springsteen - Singer
Kevin Spirtas - Actor
Barbra Streisand - Singer
David Steinberg - Director
Sylvester Stallone - Actor
Harry Dean Stanton - Actor
Meryl Streep - Actress
Patrick Stewart - Actor
Sharon Stone - Actress
Sting - Singer
Trudie Styler - Actress
Jonathan Taylor Thomas - Actor
The Temptations - Pop Group
Vinny Testaverde - NFL player
Marlo Thomas - Actress*
Uma Thurman - Actress
Steve Tisch - Producer
Mike Torrez - Former Baseball player
Shania Twain - Singer
Dick Van Dyke - Actor
Eli Wallach - Actor*
Harvey Weinstein - Producer
Jann Wenner - Publisher
Sigourney Weaver - Actress
Victor Webster - Actor
Andy Williams - Singer*
Kelli Williams - Actress
Henry Winkler - Actor
Oprah Winfrey - Entertainer
Rita Wilson - Actress
Vanessa Williams - Singer
Herman Wouk - Author
Joanne Woodward - Actress*
Peter Yarrow - Singer
Catherine Zeta-Jones - Actress
Ahmet Zappa -Actor
Diva Zappa -Actress
Dweezil Zappa - Musician
Gail Zappa -
Moon Zappa -Actress
* Denotes membership on
Brady Campaign`s National Committee

National Figures:
Joel J. Alpert M.D. - Pediatrician
Robert Bernstein Ph.D - Pediatrician
Robert E. Brennan - Financier
Bishop Edmond Browning - Espiscopal Leader
James E. Carter - Former President
Marion Wright Edelman - Director, Childrens Defense Fund
Michael Eisner, Former Chairman and CEO The Walt Disney Company
Amitai Etzioni - Teacher
Tom Freston - MTV President
Dr. Lorraine E. Hale - Social Worker
Della M. Hughes - Activist
Ed Koch - Former Politician
C. Everett Koop - Former Surgeon General
Rev. Wallace Ryan Kuroiwa - Clergyman
Gerald M. Levin - Chairman, Time Warner
Davis S. Liederman - Ex. Dir. Child Welfare League
Paul Rabbi Menitaff - Clergyman
Abner Mikva - Former Judge
Richard Parsons - Pres. Time Warner
Steven Rockefeller - Financier
Ellen Y. Rosenberg - Activist
Rabbi David Saperstein - Clergyman
Herb Scannell - Pres. Nickelodeon
Vincent Schiraldi - Dir. Justice Policy Institute
Lyle Elmer Strom - Federal Judge
Joe Volk - Clergyman
Rabbi Eric H. Yoffie - Clergyman

The following journalists actively
editorialize in favor of gun control laws:
Steve Benson - Cartoonist
Tony Auth - Cartoonist
Jim Borgman - Cartoonist
Jimmy Breslin - Columnist
Stuart Carlson - Cartoonist
Marie Cocco - Columnist
E.J. Dionne Jr. - Columnist
Bonnie Erbe - Columnist
Tom Fiedler - Columnist
Michael Gartner - Columnist
Mark Genrich - Columnist
James Glassman - Editor
Bob Herbert - Columnist
Bill Johnson - Columnist
Donald Kaul - Columnist
Mike Lane - Cartoonist
Leonard Larson - Columnist
Mike Luckovich - Cartoonist
Jimmy Margulies - Cartoonist
Deborah Mathis - Columnist
Colman McCarthy - Columnist
Jim Morin - Cartoonist
Tom Oliphant- Columnist
Mike Peters - Cartoonist
Robert Reno - Columnist
Frank Rich - Columnist
Cindy Richards - Columnist
Kevin Siers- Cartoonist
Ed Stein - Cartoonist
Tom Teepen - Editor
Tim Toles - Cartoonist
Garry Trudeau - Cartoonist
Cynthia Tucker - Columnist
Steve Twomey - Columnist
Steve Villano - Columnist
Adrienne Washington - Columnist
Don Wright - Cartoonist

Anti-Gun Corporations/Corporate Heads
The following listing includes the most prominent national corporations that have lent their corporate support to gun control initiatives or taken position supporting gun control.

A & M Records
Al Cafaro, Chrm. & CEO
595 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10022
(212) 826-0477

Record Production, Entertainment
American Century Companies
James E. Stowers, CEO
4500 Main St., 4th Floor
Kansas City, MO 64111
(816) 531-5575

Mutual Fund & Stock Investment Company on NYSE
American Multi Cinemas Entertainment, Inc.
Stanley H. Durwood, Co-Chairman, CEO Peter C. Brown, President, CFO
106 West 14th Street, #1700
Kansas City, MO 64141
(816) 221-4000

Movie Theater Company
Argosy Casino
H. Steven Norton, President, CEO
777 N.W. Argosy Parkway
Riverside, MO 64150
(816) 746-7711

Gambling Casino Company
Ben & Jerry`s Homemade, Inc.
Bennett R. Cohen Chrm. & CEO
Rte. 100, Box 240
Waterbury, VT 05676
(802) 244-5641

Ice cream and frozen yogurt
BJC Health Systems
Fred L. Brown, President & CEO
4444 Forest Park Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63108
(314) 747-9322

Healthcare Company
Blue Cross Blue Shield - Kansas City
John P. Mascotte, President
P.O. Box 419169
Kansas City, MO 64141
(816) 395-2222

Healthcare Company
Brooks Investments-Robert Brooks
Robert Brooks
45 Chesterfield Lakes Road
Chesterfield, MO 63005

Investment Company
Carter Hawley Hale Stores, Inc.
Philip M. Hawley, Chrm. & CEO
444 South Flower Street
Los Angeles, CA 90071
(213) 620-0150
Retail clothing and accessories stores

Crown Central Petroleum Corp.
Henry A. Rosenberg, Jr.
One North Central Street Box 1168
Baltimore, MD 21203
(301) 539-7400
Refiners and marketers of petroleum products, convenience stores

Development Specialists - Chicago
70 W. Madison Street, #2300
Chicago, IL 60602
(312) 263-4141

Earthgrains - St. Louis
8400 Maryland Ave.
St. Louis, MO 63105
(314) 259-7000
National Bread Company

General American - St. Louis
Richard A. Liddy, CEO
P.O. Box 396
St. Louis, MO 63166
(314) 843-8700
Life Insurance

Hallmark Cards
Irvine O. Hockaday, President & CEO
P.O. Box 418307
Kansas City, MO 64141
(816) 274-5111
Greeting Card Company

Health Midwest
2316 East Meyer Boulevard
Kansas City, MO 64132
(816) 751-3000
National Healthcare Company

ICN Biomedicals
Adam Jerney, Chrm. & CEO
3300 Hyland Avenue
Costa Mesa, CA 92626
(714) 545-0113
Pharmaceutical products

James B. Nutter Co. - Kansas City
James B. Nutter
4153 Broadway
Kansas City, MO 64111
(816) 531-2345
Investment Banker

Kansas City Chiefs
One Arrowhead Drive
Kansas City, MO 64129
(816) 924-9300
Pro Football Team

Kansas City Royals
David Glass, CEO
P.O. Box 419969
Kansas City, MO 64141
(816) 921-8000
Pro Baseball Team

Kenneth Cole
152 W. 57th Street
New York, NY 10019
(800) 536-2653
Clothing retailer

Lamar Advertising Company
Lamar Outdoor Advertising
5551 Corporate Boulevard, Suite 2-A
Baton Rouge, LA 70808
P. O. Box 66338
Baton Rouge, LA 70896
(225) 926-1000
Fax (225) 926-1005

Levi Strauss & Co.
Robert D. Haas, Chairman
Philip Marineau, CEO
Peter A. Jacobi, President and COO
1155 Battery St.
San Francisco, CA 94111
(415) 501-6000
FAX (415) 501-3939

Mallinckrodt, Inc. - St. Louis
C. Ray Holman, President & CEO
675 McDonnell Blvd, Box 5840
St. Louis, MO 63134
(314) 654-2000
Clothing Starch Company

Michael Douglas Foundation
3550 Wilshire
Los Angele, CA 90010

MNC Financial, Inc.
Ten Light Street Box 987
Baltimore, MD 21203
(301) 244-5000
Banking, financial services

Sara Lee Corporation
Sara Lee Foundation
Three First National Plaza
Chicago, IL 60602-4260
Phone: 312-726-2600
Fax: 312-726-3712

Silver Dollar City
Peter Herschend
One Corporate Drive
Branson, MO 65616
800 475-9370
Amusement Parks

Site Oil Company - St. Louis
Alvin J. Siteman, President
50 S. Bemiston
St. Louis, MO 63105
(314) 725-4321
Oil Company

Southland Corporation
Masatoshi Ito, Chrm.
2711 North Haskell Avenue
Dallas, TX 75221
Convenience stores

Southwestern Bell Telephone- St. Louis
One Bell Center
St. Louis, MO 63101
(314) 235-9800
Telecommunications Firm

Sport & Health, Inc.
Don Konz, CEO
1800 Old Meadow Rd.
McLean, Virginia 22102
(703) 556-6556
Health clubs and fitness centers

Sprint Corp PAC
William T. Esrey, Chrm., Pres. & CEO 2330 Shawnee Mission Parkway
Westwood, KS 66205
913 624-3000
Telecommunicaitons Firm

SSM Health System - St. Louis
477 N. Lindbergh
St. Louis, MO 63141
(314) 994-7800
Healthcare Company

St. Louis Rams
One Rams Way
Earth City, MO 63045
(314) 982-7267
Pro Football Team

St. Louis University
Rev. Lawrence Biondi, President
221 N. Grand Blvd.
St. Louis, MO 63103
(314) 977-2222
Private Catholic University

Stoneyfield Farms Yogurt
Mr. Gary Hirshberg, CEO
10 Burton Drive
Londonderry, NH 03053
(603) 437-7594

Sverdrup Corp.
Richard E. Beumer,
Chairman & CEO
13723 Riverport Drive
Maryland Heights, MO 63043
(314) 436-7600
Engineering Firm

Time Warner Inc.
Gerald M. Levin, Chrm. & CEO
75 Rockefeller Plaza
New York, NY 10019
(212) 364-8300
Publishing, film and music recordings

TMP Worldwide/Monster.Com
Andrew McKelvey, CEO
1633 Broadway, 33rd Fl.
New York, NY 10019
Phone: 212-977-4200
Fax: 212-956-2142
online employment service

Unity Health - St. Louis
1650 Des Peres Road #301
St. Louis, MO 63131
(314) 909-3300
Healthcare Company

Working Assets
Peter Barnes, Founder
701 Montgomery Street
San Francisco, California 94111
(415) 788-0777

Publication and Media Outlets
The following publications and media outlets have assisted in the attack on Second Amendment rights. The editorial policies of some of the media sources listed portray firearms in a negative manner in an attempt to generate public support for restrictions on firearms ownership. Others have refused some or all of NRA`s advertisements.

Capital Cities/ABC
Television Network
77 W. 66th Street
New York, NY 10023-6298
(212) 456-7777

Bell Atlantic-D.C.
2055 L Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20036
(202) 392-9900

Blue Chip Stamps
15801 S. Eastern Avenue
Los Angeles, CA 90040
(213) 720-4600

The Christian Publishing Society
The Christian Science Monitor
One Norway Street
Boston, MA 02115
(508) 586-6200

Columbia Broadcasting Service
CBS Television Network
51 W. 52nd Street
New York, NY 10019
(212) 975-4321

Corporation For Public Broadcasting/ PBS Television
1320 Braddock Place
Alexandria, VA 22314-1698
(703) 739-5000
(703) 739-0775 - Fax

Cox Newspapers
Atlanta Journal-Constitution
Credibank Towers, Suite 400
2800 Biscayne Blvd.
Miami, FL 33137
(305) 576-7678

Gannett News Service
USA Today
1000 Wilson Blvd.
Arlington, VA 22229
(703) 276-5806

Johnson Publishing Company, Inc.
Ebony Magazine
820 S. Michigan avenue
Chicago, IL 60605-2190
(312) 322-9250

Knight-Ridder Newspapers
Detroit Free-Press
321 W. LaFayette Blvd.
Detroit, MI 48231
(313) 222-6400

Miami Herald
One Herald Plaza
Miami, FL 33132-1683
(305) 350-2111

Los Angeles Times
Times Mirror Square
Los Angeles, California 90053
(213) 237-4511
(213) 237-7679 - Fax

McCall`s Magazine
110 Fifth Avenue
New York, NY 10017-5603
(212) 463-1000

Motorcycle Cruiser Magazine
Emap PLC
6420 Wilshire Blvd., Floor 17
Los Angeles, California 90048
(323) 782-2000

National Broadcasting Company
NBC Television Network
30 Rockefeller Plaza
New York, NY 10112
(212) 664-4444

Newsweek, Inc.
Newsweek Magazine
444 Madison Avenue
New York, NY 10022-6999
(212) 350-4000

Rolling Stone Magazine
Jann Wenner, Chrm. & CEO
745 5th, Avenue
New York, NY 10151
(212) 758-3800

The New York Times Corporation
The New York Times
229 W. 43rd Street
New York, NY 10036
(212) 556-1234

Time Magazine
Time & Life Building
Rockefeller Center
New York, NY 10020
(212) 522-1212

Times-Mirror Corporation
The Los Angeles Times
Times Mirror Square
Los Angeles, CA 90053
(213) 237-3000

The Baltimore Sun
501 N. Calvert Street
Baltimore, MD 21278
(301) 332-6300

The Tribune Company
Chicago Tribune
435 N. Michigan Avenue
Chicago, IL 60611
(312) 227-3000

Washington Post
1150 15th Street, N.W.
Washington, D.C. 20071
(202) 334-6000

Compiled by:
NRA Institute for Legislative Action
11250 Waples Mill Road
Fairfax, Virginia 22030